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- 1955 Ph.D. Anthropology; Columbia University
- 1942 cum laude BA History; Howard University
- Dissertation; Colonial Conflict and the Cherokee Indians, 1710-1760
- Areas of Research: Ethnohistory, history of anthropology, Native Americans, blacks in the Americas, relations among Native Americans, Blacks, and Whites.
- Selected publications: “Divide and rule: Red, white, & black in the southeast.” Journal of Negro History 48(3): 157-176 (1963, reprinted in four books); “Skeletons in the anthropological closet.” In Dell Hymes, ed., Reinventing Anthropology (1972); “Franz Boas and the study of Black folklore.” In John W. Bennett, ed., The New Ethnicity: Perspectives from Ethnology (1975)