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- 1960 Ph.D. Sociology; Northwestern University
- 1956 MA; Northwestern University
- 1953 BA; Oberlin College
- Thesis: Ethnocentrism and the Social Definition of Race as In-Group Determinants
- Dissertation: Role Conflict, Reference Group, and Race
- Selected Publication: The Struggle of Mozambique (1969)
- Was on the faculty of the Department of Anthropology at Syracuse University before working for the UN and then returning to Southern Africa to dedicate himself to FRELIMO, of which he was a founder and leader.